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Symptoms of influenza include sore throat, chills, fatigue, cough, headache, fever, and muscle aches. Influenza is a contagious virus that spreads through coughing or sneezing. More than 200,000 people are hospitalized, and over 36,000 die yearly from flu-related complications. Most of the deaths that occur are in the elderly, young children, and those with specific severe health conditions.
The varicella-zoster virus, the same virus that causes chickenpox, is the cause of shingles. Only someone who has had chickenpox, or was vaccinated for it, can get shingles. The virus can lay dormant in the body for many years and then resurface to cause shingles. Shingles is a painful skin rash, usually occurring on one side of the face or body and lasting two to four weeks. Pain that can be quite severe is the main symptom of shingles. Other symptoms can include headache, fever, chills, and upset stomach. Over one million people in the United States are afflicted by shingles each year. Cases of shingles are more common in people over the age of 50, or young children.
Pneumococcal disease kills more people in the United States each year than all other vaccine-preventable diseases combined. It is serious bacterial infection that can lead to serious infections of the lungs (pneumonia), the blood (bacteremia), and the covering of the brain (meningitis).
Coughing spells, vomiting, and disturbed sleep can all be caused by Pertussis. Other symptoms could include weight loss, rib fractures, pneumonia, hospitalization due to complication, and fainting from violent coughing spells. Pertussis is caused by bacteria and is very contagious. It is especially dangerous in infants and young children, and can lead to pneumonia, seizures, brain damage, and death.
Meningococcal disease is a serious bacterial infection of the fluid surrounding the brain and the spinal cord, or of the blood. The bacteria are spread from person to person through coughing, kissing, sharing utensils, etc. Chills, high fever, rash, and lethargy are all symptoms connected with Meningococcal disease. Other symptoms could include a stiff neck, seizures, and headaches. Around 3,000 people are affected by Meningococcal every year. In extreme cases, it can cause shock, coma, or even death.
Measles symptoms may include runny nose, fever, cough, and a rash. It is one of the most contagious diseases known to humans. Complications of measles can lead to pneumonia, diarrhea, encephalitis, and even death.
Mumps symptoms include, headaches, fever, swollen neck glands, and muscle aches. Meningitis, permanent deafness, and testicular inflammation can arise from complication with mumps.
Rubella symptoms can include joint pain, rash, and muscle pain. In pregnancy, rubella can harm or even kill the baby, making it a very serious concern when dealing with pregnancy. If the baby does survive, complications from the disease could include cataracts, heart defects, deafness, and mental retardation.
The Varicella-zoster virus causes chickenpox, and causes a rash of several hundred or more itchy blisters on the skin. The face, scalp, and trunk are usually the most affected. Other symptoms of chickenpox can include, coughing, lack of appetite, headache, and fever. Bacterial infections, pneumonia, and encephalitis can arise from complications with the disease. Chickenpox is very contagious and is spread through the air or direct contact.
Tetanus causes a locking of the jaw, and a painful tightening of muscles all over the body. Lockjaw makes it difficult to swallow, or even open the mouth at all. 2 out of 10 cases of tetanus lead to death. Tetanus is caused by bacteria entering the body through cuts or wounds.
Hepatitis A may be mild or severe, lasting from a few weeks to several months. It is a serious liver disease caused by a virus. Hepatitis A can be spread by eating contaminated food. However, in most cases it’s spread through close personal contact. It causes flu-like symptoms, severe stomach pain, diarrhea, and yellowing of the skin or eyes. In rare cases, liver failure or death can occur.
Hepatitis B, a serious liver disease, is spread through contact with blood or other bodily fluids of an infected person. The disease is not spread through the air, so you will not get infected from sneezing, coughing, kissing, or holding hands. One in every three people affected with Hepatitis B in the United States don’t know how they got it. Short–term symptoms can include diarrhea, tiredness, loss of appetite, and yellowing of the skin or eyes. Long–term effects could be liver damage and liver cancer. It is estimated that more than 80,000 people, mostly young adults, get infected with the virus.
Diphtheria can cause a thick covering of the back of the throat, and can lead to breathing problems, heart failure, and even death. Diphtheria is caused by bacteria and is contagious.
About 20 million people are infected with HPV in the United States. It’s the most common sexually transmitted virus in the U.S. Most people are not aware they have the virus and show no symptoms. The body naturally cleans the virus in most cases, but complications can arise in some women. This can lead to cervical cancer. Each year more than 10,000 women get cervical cancer, and about 3,700 die from it.